Terminology for keywords and phrases used by manufacturing industry

Alkaline – A PH reading greater than 7.0. Also, see caustic.

Auditing – On-site verification activity, such as inspection or examination, of a process or quality system to ensure compliance with requirements.

Bacteria – Organisms that live in the air, soil, and water can affect the metal cutting fluid, typically only visible under a microscopic inspection individually.

Biofilm – A thin, robust layer of mucilage adhering to a solid surface containing a community of bacteria and microorganisms.

Bad smell – Oil Oxidation has a sour or pungent smell, similar to rotten eggs.

Blank Value – Baseline measurement to report against.

Blank Value Criterion – maximum value that may not be exceeded when determining the blank level, i.e. max. 10 % of the required or expected cleanliness value

Blank Level Test – analysis carried out in the same operating conditions as on the test component but without the test component

Caustic – A pH reading greater than 7.0. Also, see Alkaline.

CCC – Component Cleanliness Code. VDA19 and ISO-16232 standardised methods for testing component cleanliness concerning road vehicles

CalibrationCalibration is the documented comparison of a measurement.

Cleanliness – In manufacturing, cleanliness is a subjective or defined surface condition of a component. For example, visually clean denotes being free from oils and particulates visible to the unaided human eye.

Chloride – A negative ion found in water; prone to create corrosion in aqueous applications when allowed to build to high concentrations.

Component Failure – A component fails to meet the required standard.

Corrosion – The natural and gradual conversion of metals by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment into a more stable state such as an oxide, hydroxide or sulfide.

Chlorine – A compound of atoms used to provide lubrication with extreme pressure. It is be diluted to make water safe.

Coolant – Fluid used to remove heat from a process in metalworking, typically water-based or semi-synthetic substance.

Corrosion – A chemical reaction when metal is exposed to oxidization, making it more liable to rust.

Galvanic Corrosion – Also known as dissimilar metal corrosion, occurs when two dissimilar metals are immersed in a conductive solution.  A condition is sometimes seen in detergent-based cleaning systems.

Corrosion Protection  – A layer of fluid to protect from corrosion.

Cutting Fluid  – Fluid used to remove the metal in manufacturing or grinding application. Maybe a straight oil or a water-soluble oil.   –

Degreasing  – Process to remove grease and oil from metal parts.

DI – Abbreviation for Deionized; typically used when ions are removed from the water. Water then has no hardness or conductivity.

Digitalised Data –  Data produced for reporting in RJL software.

Emulsion –  Two fluids blended that are then combined in each other.

Exicator  –  Storage of membranes in a dry area.

Extreme Pressure (EP)  – Additives that are activated under extreme pressure situations where heat is generated. For example, sulphur, chlorine and phosphorus.

Extraction Kit  – Basic package for extraction of particles onto a membrane.

Filtration – A separation of solids from a liquid.

Foaming  – Reaction between the cleaning agent and other substances resulting from pressure change in solvent applications and excessive turbulence in aqueous applications.

Foreign substance  – An unintended substance left behind on your parts.

Forming Lubricants  – Lubricants used during the forming process in manufacturing.

Fraunhofer Institute – Europe’s largest application-oriented research organization.

Fungicide – A substance that kills fungi build up in Solutions.

Granulometry – Is also known as a particle size distribution test that involves measuring and grouping grains within size ranges, such as 15-25 microns.

Gravimetry – A membrane is weighed before and after collecting particles from the test subject. The difference is the total mass of contaminants in the component. Weighting takes place using precision balances like the KERN ALJ-160-4AM supplied by Kumi Solutions as part of an entry-level VDA19 particle extraction kit.  Gravimetry gives the user the total mass contained on the membrane. It does not provide the user with any information about particle size, numbers or categorisation.  For an exact result, the blank membranes must be stored in Exicator to normalise the filter membrane. Weighing before filtration occurs ensures an accurate tare weight. When particles are collected on the filter membrane, they must be dried, generally in a laboratory oven like the Memmert 30UN or on a hotplate.  Placing the dried membrane back into the Exicator for some time will allow it to normalise again. The difference in the measured, before and after weights represents an accurate total mass of the collected particles.

Hardness – Related to the amount of calcium and magnesium in the water supply, expressed as PPM of calcium carbonate.  Also, used for defining the resistance of a material to localised plastic deformation.

Holistic Approach  –  To look at the problem as a whole.

Hydroforming Processes  – A blank sheet of metal is driven into a die by hydraulic pressure on one side of the sheet forming the desired shape.

ISO-16232 – Automotive Road Vehicle Cleanliness Standard. First, issue ISO 16232-1:2007 with further revisions in 2007, taking ISO 16232 to issue 10.

ISO 16232:2018 – Road vehicles — Cleanliness of components and systems, current issue.

This document specifies requirements for applying and documenting methods for determining particulate contamination on functionally relevant components and systems (cleanliness inspection) of road vehicles.

A cleanliness inspection comprises the basis of an assessment of technical cleanliness, which is performed, for example, under the following circumstances:

— initial inspection and evaluation;

— inspection of incoming and outgoing components; and

— quality control or monitoring of manufacturing processes relevant to cleanliness (e.g. cleaning, surface treatment and assembly processes).

This document is intended to improve the informative quality and comparability of test results. It also defines the standardized expression of cleanliness specifications and cleanliness test results in the quality chain of the automotive industry.

This document does not apply to the following:

— detection of filmy contamination (grease, oils, etc.);

— application of non-quantifiable particulate detection methods on test components (e.g. visual assessment, wipe test with a clean cloth, etc.); and

— characterization of operating fluids (fuel, oils, coolants, brake fluid, etc.).

This document does not define any cleanliness limit values for specific components or systems. The degree of cleanliness required for a specific component or system is dependent on several highly individual factors. Cleanliness specifications are intended to be undertaken only by specialists who know the component concerned and the system it is built into, the later conditions of use, technically feasible practices, and possible consequences for manufacturing processes and the supply chain. Guidance for deriving limit values can be found in Annex H.

Ref: – ISO.org

ISO17025 – Laboratory Accreditation Standard for Testing and calibration laboratories. Enables laboratories to demonstrate that they operate competently and generate valid results, promoting confidence in their work nationally and worldwide.

Light microscope  – An instrument for visualizing the fine detail of an object.

Lubricants  – A substance capable of reducing friction, heat, and wear when introduced as a film between solid surfaces.

Low Evaporation rates  – The rate at which a material or evaporates.  Typically the higher the boiling point, the lower the evaporation rate.

Membranes – Nylon discs collect particles after extraction from parts.

Metal cutting  – The process of removing material in the form of chips from a piece of metal using a cutting tool.

Metal Forming – The process of shaping and reshaping metals to create useful objects, parts, assemblies, and large scale structures.  Metal forming is widely used to provide greater strength to the material than the material in a flat condition can provide alone.

Micron – A measurement of length assigned by Greek letter mu (µ)

Multi-function fluids – Lubricants that can get with several manufacturing processes.

Modular  – standardised units that are combined to build a product to your specifications.

Neat Cutting Oils – Fluids usually based on mineral oils and used for cutting without further dilution. These products may have a variety of additives, which may cause issues over time.

OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer

Oil Mist Qualities  – Oil mist is produced by the interaction of the metalworking fluids with the moving parts. In the case of fast-moving, It is thrown back and dispersed as fine droplets.

Oxidation – A substance that gives up electrons is oxidised

Particle Counting  – The process of counting all the particles collected on a membrane.

Particle Sizing (Solid)  – Size of debris extracted from a dirty fluid. It can be glossy or non-glossy. Also, see Filtration.

Particle Standard – A substrate marked with objects of a known shape and size to verify the MicroQuick and similar systems are calibrated.

Particle size distribution – A particle count that has been grouped into particle size classes. e.g. 5-20μ 21-50μ etc.

Particle Categorising  –  identifying the type of particle left on a membrane.

Parts Per Billion (PPB)   –  The number of units contained per 1000 million units.

Parts Per Million (PPM)  –  The number of units contained per million units.

Parts per Thousand (PPT) – The number of units contained per thousand units.

pH level – A scale measure of how acidic/alkaline a substance is, ranging from 0-14. <7 is acidic, >7 is alkaline

Porous parts – Distribution of pore size and length of passage qualities.

Pinch point – A place or point where congestion occurs or is likely to occur, also known as a bottleneck

Reporting – The act by a company of giving an official report.

Residual oils – Foreign fluids left on clean parts.

Reverse Osmosis – Removal of ions; often used in conjunction with the Deionisation process.

Stained parts – Parts that have a mark left on them after cleaning or due to oxidation. A chemical process that may cause damage or be difficult to remove.

Soluble oil – Metalworking fluid that has oil and emulsifiers added to water, often milky in appearance.

Solution – A mixture of fluids, often transparent and contains no oil.

Stain – a chemical process that creates imperfections or damage to a metal substrate.

Surfactant – Acronym for surface-active agents.; providing wetting.

Surface Contamination – Particles left on clean metal parts.

Surface tension – The tendency of liquid surfaces to shrink into the minimum surface area possible.

Titration – A acid-based reaction to determine the acidity or alkalinity of fluid to determine the concentration.

Tramp Oil – A liquid used to Lubricate the machinery that may get transferred to the part during manufacturing. Can cause a loss of air supply leading to bacteria growth.

VDA19 – Inspection of Technical Cleanliness >Particulate Contamination of Functionally Relevant Automotive Components / 1st addition January 2004

VDA19.1 – Inspection of Technical Cleanliness >Particulate Contamination of Functionally Relevant Automotive Components / 2nd Revised Edition, March 2015 (former title: VDA volume 19)

VDA19.2 – Technical cleanliness in assembly – Environment, Logistics, Personnel and Assembly Equipment.

Viscosity – A resistance of a liquid or gas to a change in shape or movement of neighbouring portions relative to one another.

Water Miscible Lubricants  – Typically used in metal cutting applications where the water provides the cooling capacity while the water-miscible lubricant provides lubricity.

Water Soluble oils  –  oil that can be diluted and cleaned with water.

Workholding – basket for holding workpieces during manufacture, cleaning, and storage.

White particles – Particles left behind after filtration that are white under the scanner.

3D Particle measurement  – the process of looking at a particle in three dimensions electronically.