Terminology for keywords and phrases used by manufacturing industry

Alkaline – A PH reading greater than 7.0. Also, see caustic.

Auditing – On-site verification activity, such as inspection or examination, of a process or quality system, to ensure compliance to requirements.

Bacteria – Organisms that live in the air, soil, and water that can affect the metal cutting fluid; typically only visible under a microscopic inspection individually.

Biofilm – A thin robust layer of mucilage adhering to a solid surface containing a community of bacteria and microorganisms.

Bad smell – Oil Oxidation has a sour or pungent smell, similar to rotten eggs.

Blank Value – Baseline measurement to report against.

Caustic – A pH reading greater than 7.0. Also, see Alkaline.

CCC – Component Cleanliness Code used by VDA19 and ISO-16232

CalibrationCalibration is the documented comparison of a measurement.

Cleanliness – In manufacturing cleanliness is a subjective or defined surface condition of a component. For example, visually clean denotes being free from oils and particulates visible to the unaided human eye.

Chloride – A negative ion found in water; prone to create corrosion in aqueous applications when allowed to build to high concentrations.

Component Failure – A component fails to meet the required standard.

Corrosion – It is the natural and gradual conversion of metals by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment into a more stable state such as an oxide, hydroxide or silfide.

Chlorine – A compound of atoms used to provide lubrication with extreme pressure. Is be diluted to make water safe.

Coolant – Fluid used to remove heat from a process in metalworking; typically water-based or semi-synthetic substance.

Corrosion – A chemical reaction when metal is exposed to oxidisation making it more liable to rust.

Galvanic Corrosion – Also known as dissimilar metal corrosion occurs when two dissimilar metals are immersed in a conductive solution.  A condition sometimes seen in detergent based cleaning systems.

Corrosion Protection  – A layer of fluid to protect from corrosion.

Cutting Fluid  – Fluid used to remove the metal in manufacturing or grinding application. Maybe a straight oil or a water-soluble oil.   –

Degreasing  – Process to remove grease and oil from metal parts.

DI – Abbreviation for Deionized; typically used when ions are removed from the water. Water then has no hardness or conductivity.

Digitalised Data –  Data produced for reporting in RJL software.

Emulsion –  Two fluids blended that are then combined in each other.

Exicator  –  Storage of membranes in a dry area.

Extreme Pressure (EP)  – Additives that are activated under extreme pressure situations where heat is generated. For example, sulphur, chlorine and phosphorus.

Extraction Kit  – Basic package for extraction of particles onto a membrane.

Filtration – A separation of solids from a liquid.

Foaming  – Reaction between the cleaning agent and other substances as a result of pressure change in solvent applications and excessive turbulence in aqueous applications.

Foreign substance  – An unintended substance left behind on your parts.

Forming Lubricants  – Lubricants used during the forming process in manufacturing.

Fraunhofer Institute – Europe’s largest application-oriented research organization.

Fungicide – A substance that kills fungi build up in Solutions.

Granulometry  – Also known as a particle size distribution test which involves measuring and grouping grains within size ranges, such as 15-25 microns.

Hardness – Related to the amount of calcium and magnesium in the water supply; expressed as PPM of calcium carbonate.  Also, used for defining the resistance of a material to localised plastic deformation

Holistic Approach  –  To look at the problem, as a whole.

Hydroforming Processes  – A blank sheet of metal is driven into a die by hydraulic pressure on one side of the sheet forming the desired shape.

ISO-16232 – Automotive Road Vehicle Cleanliness Standard.

ISO17025 – Laboratory Accreditation Standard.

Light microscope  – An instrument for visualizing the fine detail of an object.

Lubricants  – A substance capable of reducing friction, heat, and wear when introduced as a film between solid surfaces.

Low Evaporation rates  – The rate at which a material or evaporates.  Typically the higher the boiling point the lower the evaporation rate.

Membranes – Nylon discs to collect particles after extraction from parts.

Metal cutting  – The process of removing material in the form of chips, from a piece of metal, using a cutting tool.

Metal Forming – The process of shaping and reshaping metals to create useful objects, parts, assemblies, and large scale structures.  Metal forming is widely used to provide greater strength to the material than the material in a flat condition can provide alone.

Micron – A measurement of length assigned by Greek letter mu (µ)

Multi-function fluids – Lubricants that can be used for several manufacturing processes.

Modular  – unit that can be built to your specifications.

Neat Cutting Oils – Fluids usually based on mineral oils and used for cutting without further dilution. These products may have a variety of additives, which may cause issues over time.

OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer

Oil Mist Qualities  – Oil mist is produced by the interaction of the metalworking fluids with the moving parts. In the case of fast-moving, It is thrown back and dispersed as fine droplets.

Oxidation – A substance that gives up electrons is oxidised

Particle Counting  – The process of counting all the particles collected on a membrane.

Particle Sizing (Solid)  – Size of debris extracted from a dirty fluid. Can be glossy or non-glossy. Also, see Filtration.

Particle Categorising  –  identifying the type of particle left on a membrane.

Parts Per Billion (PPB)   –  The number of units contained per 1000 million units.

Parts Per Million (PPM)  –  The number of units contained per million units.

Parts per Thousand (PPT) – The number of units contained per thousand units.

pH level – A scale measure of how acidic/alkaline a substance is, having a range from 0-14. <7 is acidic, >7 is alkaline

Porous parts – Distribution of pore size and length of passage qualities.

Pinch point – A place or point where congestion occurs or is likely to occur, also known as a bottle neck

Reporting – The act by a company of giving an official report.

Residual oils – Foreign fluids left on clean parts.

Reverse Osmosis – Removal of ions; often used in conjunction with the Deionisation process.

Stained parts – Parts that have a mark left on them after cleaning or due to oxidation. A chemical process that may cause damage or be difficult to remove.

Soluble oil – Metalworking fluid that has oil and emulsifiers added to water; often milky in appearance.

Solution – A mixture of fluids, often transparent, and contains no oil.

Stain – a chemical process that creates imperfections or damage to a metal substrate.

Surfactant – Acronym for surface-active agents.; providing wetting.

Surface Contamination – Particles left on clean metal parts.

Surface tension – The tendency of liquid surfaces to shrink into the minimum surface area possible.

Titration – A acid-based reaction to determine the acidity or alkalinity of fluid to determine the concentration.

Tramp Oil – A liquid used to Lubricate the machinery that may get transferred to the part during manufacturing. Can cause a loss of air supply leading to bacteria growth.

VDA19 – Cleaning Method Standards.

Viscosity – A resistance of a liquid or gas to a change in shape, or movement of neighbouring portions relative to one another.

Water Miscible Lubricants  – Typically used in metal cutting applications where the water provides the cooling capacity while the water-miscible lubricant provides lubricity.

Water Soluble oils  –  oil that can be diluted and cleaned with water.

Workholding – basket for holding workpieces during manufacture, cleaning, and storage.

White particles – Particles left behind after filtration that are white under the scanner.

3D Particle measurement  – the process of looking at a particle in three dimensions electronically.